References to Terrorism Included
in Ethnic Media Summaries

Subject Analysis and Evaluation
up to February 6, 2002

A special project report for the Department of Canadian Heritage
by Pluri Vox Media Corp.

February, 2002


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 3
METHOD 3
PRE-SEPTEMBER 11 ANALYSIS 3
POST-SEPTEMBER 11 ANALYSIS 6
OFFICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE APPRAISAL 6
      Reactions to Post-11 September Racism in Canada 6
      Appraisal of Bill C-36 9
CANADIAN SOVEREIGNTY AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS 12
      Erosion of sovereignty 12
      Calls for Action 13
      Canadian Officials in Foreign Affairs 14
      Links between Multiculturalism and Foreign affairs 14

THE ROLE OF MAINSTREAM MEDIA

15
      Charges made against Canadian mainstream media 15
      Mainstream media re-examined by ethnic journalists 17

HISTORY AND THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS

17
      Historical perspectives 17
      Clash of Civilizations 19

CONCLUSION

20

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

In November 2000, the Department of Canadian Heritage commissioned Pluri Vox Media Corp. to monitor Canadian ethnic media and provide summaries of articles of interest, according to an agreed-upon list of keywords in weekly reports. The project was not designed to monitor the subject of terrorism, nor was terrorism selected as one of the initial monitoring keywords. However, following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre in New York, and the Pentagon in Washington, the subject inevitably surfaced in many of the monitored articles, under a variety of headings. With the introduction of Bill C-36 the Anti-terrorism Act in the House of Commons, on October 16, 2001, the frequency of these reports further increased. In consequence, the Department added a subject area titled "Bill C-36 and September 11 Aftermath" to the list of monitored subjects, in time for inclusion in Pluri Vox's weekly report no. 50, submitted November 14, 2001.

A summary review with statistics on how frequently these subjects occurred in the monitored media was prepared by Pluri Vox Media Corp. at the Department's request and submitted January 9, 2002. The Department of Canadian Heritage subsequently requested (on January 28, 2002) that Pluri Vox also prepare a content-oriented evaluation of those data. This report presents the requested information.

METHOD

As in the first report, the information was extracted from the project database maintained by Pluri Vox since the start of monitoring, by using keywords and full-text searches. The trends analysis provided here includes data from reports no. 56 through 60, inclusive, covering the period up to February 6, 2002. All trends or conclusions are cited to the appropriate source by footnote.

PRE-SEPTEMBER 11 ANALYSIS

Prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, references to terrorism were sporadic and infrequent, generally linked to other community concerns, to their relationship with other Canadians and other ethnic communities, as well as to the affairs in their countries of origin.

For example, commentaries and opinions included articles in Jewish newspapers dealing with Hezbollah terrorist attacks in Israel(1) or the references to Syria and Libya as known terrorist sponsors(2), in connection with matters of Canadian foreign policy(3) and trade. Certain commentators in the Tamil community remained concerned with the liberation movement in Sri Lanka. Tamil media referred to what they called "state terrorism" in that country.(4) Communities concerned about their image also mentioned terrorism in passing, for example Tamils(5) or Arab Christians objecting to being labelled Moslem fundamentalists.(6)

As will become evident below, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, did little to assuage these fears. In fact, the contrary occurred, with several communities finding confirmation for their worst fears: for example, Jewish commentators confirmed that the attacks stemmed from certain radical Moslem groups, while Tamil, Arab and Muslim communities were equally concerned about racist backlash in mainstream society, as they were regarding reactive legislation blanketing an entire religious or ethnic community, despite officials' explanations to the contrary.

Before September 11, 2001, Korean media made references to infiltration by terrorists in connection with immigration laws(7) and people smuggling.(8) Many nationally-relevant items involved immigration and deportation issues, when alleged terrorists who would possibly face torture if deported were involved, as, for example, in Tamil,(9) Polish,(10) and Farsi(11) publications, while the lenient requirements for entry to Canada were mentioned in Persian media(12) . Statistics on immigrants with criminal records were quoted in a Russian paper(13).

Other themes common to several communities included references to British and U.S. anti-terrorist acts, in particular in the Tamil(14) and Punjabi(15) communities. Numerous opinions revolved around proposals to scrutinise charities in order to make sure that they were not terrorist fronts: in the Polish(16) , Tamil (17), Farsi(18), Arabic(19) and Afro-Carribean(20) communities.

The relevance of terrorism as a magnet for community discussion becomes evident in the timing of published reports. The Pluri Vox report submitted on 12 September 2001 included five references to terrorism, none of which related to the attack yet,(21) because the report only included articles that appeared before the attack. The time-lag evident in a weekly service could be eliminated if a daily monitoring capability were implemented. But even with a week's perspective, there is ample evidence that at least five community analysts - Jewish, Polish, Farsi, Tamil and Urdu - are such regular observers of international affairs, the Canadian security and intelligence establishments, that they are wary of possible linkages between multicultural, immigration and foreign affairs.

In other words, it is also reasonable to argue that Canadian community analysts may have identified precursors to, or indices of the under-pinning of the events of September 11, prior to what has now become a key marker in our historical landscape. If any pre-September 11 conclusion may be drawn, it is that Canadian decision-makers may have failed to tap fully into the cultural and intellectual resources that speak and span across the nation, and whose interlocutors have identified some rather terrifying national assumptions.

Moreover, there is concrete evidence that certain community newspaper editors have identified for themselves a preventative role of responsibility which consists of balancing against a perceived mainstream bias.(22) In its simplest expression, the pre- and post-September 11 sequence of events is: 1) latent trends; 2) clear warning signs; 3) September 11th; 4) hate crimes and racist incidents; and 5) legislative reaction.

POST-SEPTEMBER 11 ANALYSIS

The multicultural content generated after September 11, 2001 is best characterized into four categories: 1) official and legislative appraisal; 2) Canadian sovereignty and international affairs; 3) the role of mainstream media; 4) clash of civilizations and history interpretations; Each trend is examined in more detail below.

OFFICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE APPRAISAL

Reactions to Post-11 September Racism in Canada

Virtually the entire Liberal cabinet and the opposition were on the record in the ethnic media condemning the attacks against Arabs and Muslims and other groups that followed September 11th. "I feel sorry and shamed that Muslims were the victims of hate and racism recently," Prime Minister Jean Chretien said at an Ottawa mosque.(23) Health Minister Allan Rock addressed the congregation in the Markham mosque in Toronto and said, "Muslims should not worry. They are absolutely safe...any kind of racial hatred will not be tolerated."(24) Mr. Rock was also invited to speak to an influential group of Iranian business men, a visit which was said to be timely and for which the community was grateful.(25) Heritage Minister Sheila Copps was on hand for the fundraising reconstruction of a Hamilton Hindu temple destroyed on 15 September.(26) Solicitor General Lawrence MacAulay firmly denied charges that terrorism suspects would be charged based on their ethnic background, and reiterated that accusations would stem from what the person did, not who he or she was.(27)

But a week after the attacks on New York and Washington, then Customs and Revenue Minister Martin Cauchon presented measures to verify the credentials of young men who had spent any time in any of 16 Islamic states, and in particular for students in chemistry or physics, sources said.(28) Despite official affirmations to the contrary, some enforcement activity triggered demands for formal, cabinet-level investigations: a police raid on Ottawa mosque Mecca Musallah in September led to demands that then-Immigration Minister Eleanor Caplan investigate the raid.(29)

Nurses,(30) police,(31) university officials,(32) professional sportsmen,(33) and women's groups(34) were universally on the record announcing measures and condemning the racism that followed September 11. Even the arts were affected as became evident when Prime Minister Chretien was obliged to step into the fray to permit the opening of the "Ces Pays Qui M'Habitent" exhibition at the Museum of Civilizations, while Heritage Minister Sheila Copps received a letter arguing that the exhibition may be a vehicle to promote hatred and the "ugly situation in our country.(35)

The many articles that addressed the September 11 attacks were not limited to any ethnic or language community. All of these items generated editorials and opinions featuring expressions of sympathy and condolences from Chinese, Arabic, Urdu and other communities,(36) calls for co-operation between faiths,(37) invitations to the public to visit mosques,(38) and reports on multi-faith services in memory of the victims.(39)

Condemnation of the terrorism was virtually universal, echoed by Arabic and Muslim media in particular (40), as were numerous efforts, across ethnic communities and languages, to remind the public at large that entire nationalities or ethnic groups were not responsible for those kinds of acts.(41) These summaries were among the most numerous and significant, albeit largely unreported in mainstream media. For example, both secular and religious leaders formally denounced the acts of September 11, but also used the opportunity to highlight the tenets of a philosophic or religious position, as was the case in the Stein-Al-Radwi colloquium held at the University of Toronto less than a month after the attacks.

From the beginning, the ethnic media reported on the fear of backlash experienced or feared by all Moslems and others who may be similar in appearance to the perpetrators. Jewish, Punjabi(42) and Chinese(43) papers reported on special precautions taken in their communities. There is little doubt that enforcement officials were keenly aware of a latent racism in Canadian mainstream society as evidenced by British Columbia police warning individuals wearing religious head-dress that they were at risk.(44)

As September the 11th emerged as a historical landmark for any future analysis of Canadian affairs, Japanese, Italian and Ukrainian commentators were quick to remind readers of previous events in Canadian history, which could be used to compare with post- September 11 legislation, hate crimes and racist activities. These precursor reports were soon followed by reports of actual incidents, in Spanish,(45) Korean(46) and Afro-Canadian(47) media.

On the other end of the spectrum, Canada was also viewed as or accused of being a terrorist haven--real or perceived--soon after the attack, in particular in certain Korean, Farsi and Polish publications.(48) Related to this theme was some opposition to any unified border policy with the U.S.(49) However, not all reports were critical of U.S. policies and action. An analysis from a Montreal weekly recalled that former Soviet-Armenian soldiers were experienced in fighting under Afghan-like conditions, and expressed the hope that their expertise would be called upon.(50)

Appraisal of Bill C-36

One of the definitive trends in the ethnic media was the demand for a clear definition of terrorism. Even among those who supported the Bill, the need for a definition was clear, especially if labour strikes could suddenly become a form of "terrorism."(51) A favourite argument against the ambiguity of the term "terrorism" was depicting former South African President Nelson Mandela, who had recently visited Canada, as alternatively a terrorist and a hero.(52) The Canadian Race Relations Foundation and the Canadian Centre for Refugees both cautioned against too broad a definition of terrorism.(53)

Whether formally denied or not, airports' security profile systems were labelled "systematic oppression"(54) and Bill C-36 was labelled "a Canadian version of McCarthyism."(55) Other commentaries included the conclusion that "violence, racism and militarism were on the rise," an that editorial also warned that "the fruits of civil societies were sacrificed to the merchants of war." Canada was sliding towards a police state of affairs, with the government increasingly dependent on police forces.(56)

The Canadian Islamic Congress characterized Bill C-36 as discriminating against Canadian Arabs and Muslims, and one analyst saw the legislation posing a direct threat to multiculturalism.(57) The Bill was a "flagrant injustice,"(58) targeting Muslims and Arabs(59) and was "obscene."(60) Mr. Jean Asfour of the Canadian-Arab Federation argued the Bill had enormous scope, permitted arrests based solely on doubts, and would apply almost exclusively to Muslim and Christians of Arabic origins.(61) Despite then-Justice Minister Anne McLellan's assurances, only a "banana monarchy" such as Canada would allow such a Bill to so erode rights freedoms.(62)

As to who was controlling the process, "there was a vague sense that there's nobody overseeing any of this" a Winnipeg hunger-striker noted, adding that all Bill C-36 seemed to do was "give more power to the police" and was also a good opportunity for the government to cover its tracks at various international summits.(63)

Dissent in the Liberal cabinet was noted when Fisheries Minister Herb Dhaliwal was quoted as saying that the Bill "is aimed at minorities and some of the clauses...are very dangerous," a comment which won Mr. Dhaliwal praise in at least one community.(64) Sikh and Tamil communities feared the Bill and demanded protection from it.(65)

Arabic and Muslim communities consistently reported that they felt targeted, under surveillance and uneasy: thousands changed their names to avoid administrative discrimination.(66) Where, before the Bill was introduced, there may have been a latent racism in Canadian society, analysts argued that, after the introduction of Bill C-36 , "race watching had become a patriotic duty."(67)

The initial general support for stricter entry measures(68) into Canada was soon replaced by concern about such measures being too tough, as reported in Korean,(69) Chinese,(70) and African-Canadian,(71) media. There was also substantial criticism about and allegations of discrimination, in other reports,(72) as well as concern for what the impact of the new legislation would be on refugees.(73)

CANADIAN SOVEREIGNTY AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS

Erosion of sovereignty

The initial call on September 16 to unify U.S. and Canadian policy came from the Bush administration's ambassador to Canada Gordon Giffin, who urged then Foreign Affairs Minister John Manley to harmonize Canada's border policies with those South of the border. But Mr. Manley said no, emphasizing that Canada had its own immigration and customs legislation.(74) Canadian community media continued to follow this bi-lateral dialogue closely.

For instance, then Immigration Minister Eleanor Caplan was said to be "under tremendous pressure" to amend Canadian policy after the terrorism in the United States, but resisted, citing a common tendency to find easy answers when people encounter calamity.(75) Former Canadian ambassador to Syria and an intelligence director at DFAIT Martin Calacotte urged coordination with the U.S. because it was "highly possible" terrorists had used our border to enter the United States.(76)

A columnist however warned that Canadians must be wary of talk of "harmonizing" our policies, which is code for "Americanizing" to comply with U.S. dictates: this was one of the first charges made against Ottawa.(77) By mid-November, analysts were certain that some form of negotiations for joint border checks were under way between Washington and Ottawa, including the sharing of personal data, and at least one editorialist urged Canada to start "safeguarding its interests instead of...blindly supporting every American policy."(78) Pressure from the U.S. or just a "copycat mentality" was forcing Canada to abandon its Charter of Rights and Freedoms,(79) such that Canadian "sovereignty had become an illusion."(80) One analyst said Liberal cabinet ministers had all tried their hand at amending existing and proposed legislation, leading to a list of favours granted to the U.S. and "weakening the independence of Canada."(81)

Ultimately, Canada's sending troops to Afghanistan at a time when health funding was so low was a decision which showed "servility to the United States," and would now expose Canada to acts of terrorism, a doctor and community leader argued.(82) More importantly perhaps, at least one commentator highlighted Canada's record of non-belligerence in contrast to the U.S. campaign against terror.(83) Another perspective simply melded U.S. and Canadian foreign policy into one world-view, arguing that policy-makers in both states "have difficulties better understanding the enormous political and social problems that plague our planet and which are often caused by U.S. foreign policy."(84)

Calls for Action

Among the first to warn against procrastination was the Canadian Jewish Congress whose representatives said they hoped "we would not have to wait for similar events to strike Canada before the government takes action," arguing that our border was already "too porous," as proven by terrorist infiltration.(85) A commentary in a Tamil weekly warned that Canada should "be careful in fulfilling its geo-political obligations... and maintain its individuality," including multiculturalism.(86) Ontario Security chief Lewis McKenzie was reported as saying there was a larger American presence in Ontario than in some American states, and ours was not a time for complacency, and it was reported that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has applied for funding to open a permanent office in Toronto, the existing forty agents being judged insufficient.(87)

Canadian Officials in Foreign Affairs

Federal and provincial officials were most often quoted on the record praising Pakistan President Pervez Musharaf's decision to side with the United States, with Health Minister Alan Rock and Ontario Citizenship Minister Cam Jackson supporting and congratulating Mr. Musharaf on being "Canada's trusted friend."(88)

Mr. Manley also thanked Iran's Foreign Minister Kharrazi for his "clear position against terrorism...a welcomed position."(89) But some Canadians were displeased with Ottawa's decision to forgive several hundred millions dollars of Pakistani debt, concluding that "bribing foreign governments is not a way to capture terrorists."(90) On the other hand, the decision to attack the Somalia-based al-Barakaat money transfer system was a further indication that Canada was "blindly following U.S. orders...Canadian intelligence sources have long known that Swiss trusts are a more important conduit for money laundering."(91)

Links between Multiculturalism and Foreign affairs

There were unique linkages identified between Canada's multicultural communities and foreign affairs development. For example, when Prime Minister Chretien visited an Ottawa mosque to express regret at racist incidents against Muslims, a commentator said Mr. Chretien should have gone further, requesting that mosque attendants inform police about suspect activities.(92) A Montreal weekly reported that two days after the attack on New York and Washington, the Saudi Arabian ambassador to Canada Mohamad Al-Husseini confirmed his government's support for the Palestinian cause, and the official underlined the need to observe United Nations Resolutions 252 and 267.(93)

Canadian Arab Federation's Jean Asfour and Quebec Muslim Council leader Salam el-Manyawi were against Canada's sending troops to Afghanistan; Omar Farouq, claiming to speak for 400,000 Muslims in Toronto, said this segment of the population was "ambiguous" about the bombing of Afghanistan.(94)

With the freezing of suspected and real terrorist funds, surfaced fears that such actions, (and the powers envisaged in Bill C-11) might affect genuine liberation movements like the World Tamil Movement(95) and others.(96) The Al-Barakaat organisation and the Hawala system of money transfers became a central issue for Canada's Somali community.(97) An informal cross-religious group in Toronto pledged to raise $100,000 in Canada to help rebuild a mosque in Afghanistan, an initiative said to be at least as important and food aid. (98)

THE ROLE OF MAINSTREAM MEDIA

Charges made against Canadian mainstream media

Of the four trends identified in this report, this one is most pronounced. Prime Minister Jean Chretien was on CNN's Larry King television talk-show a few days after the attacks on the U.S., but his comments on multiculturalism and Canada's unique strength in diversity were ignored by mainstream media in Canada.(99) Following the CNN interview with the Prime Minister, a Quebec newspapers association also underlined the importance of ethnic newspapers, noting that in Quebec alone, 98 publications claimed over one million readers by providing consumers perspectives quite different from that disseminated by mainstream news agencies.(100)

Specialized and trade publications were not immune from criticism either: the Canadian Jewish Congress (CJC) attacked an Ontario teachers newsletter with a circulation of 6,500 for having published an American-based article titled "Why America Is Hated" , and the CJC argued the article was "crude anti-American propaganda," that it would be "scandalous" to permit into Canadian schools.(101)

A week after the attacks on the U.S., the Islamic Supreme Council of Canada and Muslims Against Terrorism also made a formal appeal to the media not to pinpoint Muslims as perpetrators of the attacks.(102) It was argued that mass media had "become the accomplices of terrorists when they jump so quickly to their conclusions and immediately define an ethnic or religious group as the "evil." It was equally wrong, another analyst indicated, to even claim that the terrorists were religious fanatics, as mass communications often claimed.(103)

Muslims Against Terrorism president Syed Sohawardy said "Canadian media is primarily responsible for the backlash against Muslims and Sikh communities, while former Israel Defense Forces colonel argued that the mass media "heralding hordes of mass suicides... are only feeding a hunger for drama where...rhetoric prevail over reality."(104)

The Canadian Radio and Telecommunications Commission registered 34 complaints regarding anti-Arab remarks during phone-in or talk-show programs, and was obliged to issue a formal warning to radio stations across Canada to mitigate the trend.(105)

Canadian media were also charged with simply mimicking their U.S. counterparts, publishing stories on anthrax that did nothing but sow the seeds of panic and, worse: provoking real attacks by highlighting weak links in civil society training.(106) Mr. Youssef Mroueh, head of the Centre d'études arabes et islamiques charged that some "Zionist media may have allowed certain ethnic groups to believe that there was nothing to worry about Bill C-36 because it applied only to Muslim and Arabic communities."(107)

Canadian mainstream media were also curiously out of touch, an editorial indicated, when they announced that the war in Afghanistan was largely completed when in fact Canadian soldiers were just heading for the region in a new, non peace-keeping role.(108) At a December 2001 forum, Heritage Minister Sheila Copps also pledged more funding for ethnic media, described by Ethnic Press Council president Thomas Saras as the "mainstay of the democratic process."(109)

Mainstream media re-examined by ethnic journalists

In particular, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation was one of the first mass media outlets to be castigated when Canadian Jewish News pointed out that a report citing the U.S. was reaping the fruits of its own foreign policy went unchallenged, which the editorial said was "a deeply disturbing thought."(110) The CBC was also forced to apologize to Muslims when it broadcast a story linking the terrorism to Canadian Muslims in general.(111) The National Post was singled out as dismissive of attacks on Muslims and mosques, and "refusing to drop its anti-Islamic bias"while other editorial content showed "admirable insight" into the troubles faced by Muslims and Arabs in Canada.(112)

The Winnipeg Free Press was condemned for what was termed anti-Israel bias and the "irresponsible" columns of war analyst Gwyn Dyer.(113) The Toronto's Sun's Peter Worthington and the Globe and Mail's Jeffrey Simpson were depicted as mainstream columnists who proved the theory that "racism is a social disease...concealed by the manipulation of language used to disseminate and deceive."(114)

The Canadian Muslim Congress of Canada however chose the Toronto Star as best publication for non-offensive language, and the Globe and Mail was praised for its editorial policy prohibiting the adjective "Muslim" or "Arabic" to precede the noun "terrorist."

HISTORY AND THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS

Historical perspectives

The most-often cited historical parallel was the attack of the Japanese on Pearl Harbour in 1942 as compared to the attacks on New York and Washington. Ethnic media were quick and forceful to decry this mainstream media comparison, most comments marking a difference between acts of war and acts of terrorism.(115) Certain world affairs analysts said Canada had completely failed to learn from its past, since it was simply repeating the same sort of discrimination it had committed with Japanese Canadians during the Second World War, but an opinion published in a Japanese monthly differed, arguing that the treatment of Japanese then and that of Muslims and Arabs today was quite different.(116) There was a warning that a war against terrorism would be "ten times worse" than what was experienced in Vietnam.(117)

One Japanese observer said that those who experienced discrimination in North America after Pearl Harbor were quite concerned for Muslims, and expressed a willingness to help in these troubled times. Former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney agreed when he weighed in on the comparative treatment of Japanese-Canadians during the Second World War, noting that no community save the Japanese in Canada could better understand the situation of Muslims in this country, and that given past experience, it was absolutely clear that no discrimination could be tolerated.(118)

With respect to the repression of media, a newspaper editor recalled how, immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack, the RCMP closed down three Japanese-Canadian newspapers, leaving only one open to serve the Japanese community. This surviving newspaper successfully reported on curfews for Japanese Canadians, and government confiscation of Japanese-Canadian property.(119)

There were also commentaries about the exaggerations of mainstream media in war-time, and how false or misleading information in that era led to the ruin of many innocent lives.(120) A Greek foreign affairs analyst argued that certain nations resisted North American demands to release terrorists because there were recent reminders that mistaken judgements in past conflicts had led to tragedies such as Hiroshima, Vietnam, Irak and Yugoslavia, where the punishment meted out was worse than the original crimes.(121) PEN Canada President Reza Baraheni compared the attacks on New York to bombings of Baghdad, commenting how "I always thought how lucky people are in New York living in the security provided by the isolation of two oceans...this disaster proved no one is safe..."(122)

As far as Bill C-36 was concerned, it too attracted a historical comparison, with Member of Parliament Joe Volpe documenting how past governments had used laws like Bill C-36 and its accompanying "restrictive measures" to detain Italians during the Second World War.(123) Bill C-36 was also directly likened to the War Measures Act, used against the Japanese during the war and thanks to which "innocent people were presumed enemies and put into internment."(124)

Historic personalities and current events were also invoked to try to put the horrific events and backlash of September 11th into proper perspective. One of the most prominent was former South African President Nelson Mandela. An analysis in a Toronto Arabic weekly indicated that Mr. Mandela was long condemned as a terrorist in Israel and in the United States as he attempted to rid South Africa of apartheid. Those who promote Bill C-36, the analyst argued, are forgetting that there is a difference between liberation struggles and terrorism. A comparable historical analysis of Bill C-36 was provided in a Tamil weekly.(125)

Clash of Civilizations

One of the first comments to follow the tragic events of September 11 issued from an Armenian political affairs columnist who expressed the hope that U.S. President Bush would include an "Armenian contribution to the 21st century war in defence of civilization."(126) The allegation that humanity itself was at stake in the wake of the September 11 tragedies was cited in a variety of sources: a report stemming from observations at a Canadian mosque indicated that speakers had announced that a third Muslim war was under way, but that "this one was to save humanity, and this war was to be waged against the Western infidels."(127) That the United States was creating a "rift between the Islam and Christianity" was an argument based on the U.S.'s wish to take control of the Arabian Sea and the Indian ocean.(128)

Religious historian James Carrol warned that the war against terrorism was a "morally ambiguous one," and that it had also become clear that green, representing Islam, had replaced red, which used to stand for communism. These colours were symbolized to help represent fear in the minds of news consumers, and Mr. Carroll added that the primordial roots of a bi-polar world where civilizations clashed could be found as far back as the Christian crusades against Islam in the 11th and 12 th centuries.(129) An analysis of global affairs in a Winnipeg weekly went even further, stating that the war against terrorism was an "immoral war...more like a neighbourhood bully pummelling a weaker child."(130)

The religious-roots of hatred and conflict certainly found expression and confirmation in modern events: vandals made repeated attacks on mosques, Catholic churches and synagogues, with community newspapers reporting graffiti that read "Jews Must Die", and police across Canada signalling that hate crimes had doubled.(131)

When it was discovered that lobbying may be under way in certain Muslim or Arabic quarters to strip their charitable status from certain Jewish organizations, the response from the Canadian Jewish Congress was that "we're ready to meet [these allegations]...what happened on September 11th had nothing to do with [funding construction for] houses on a hill, but with demolition and murder."(132) Without doubting the sincerity of those who expressed their condemnations of Osama bin Laden, there were also"nagging thoughts" about the condemnations of terrorism from Arabic quarters, such as this letter to the editor which wondered where "these voices were when Israel itself was being attacked by suicide bombers from Gaza and West bank who killed innocent victims ? (133)

CONCLUSION

The summaries generated by Pluri Vox Media Corp. from across Canada, spanning from January 2001 to January 2002 were generated from over 100 original periodicals published in Canada, and representing over 23 communities. The correspondents who produce the summaries are certified translators in their respective languages, bound by a corporate Code of Ethics. Pluri Vox does not create the summaries but merely reports on events that pre-occupy Canada's diverse communities.

The four trends identified in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 tragic events are clear indicators that largely untapped and unfathomed currents of opinion continue to fashion values and lifestyles in Canada's non-official language communities. In turn, as Canada welcomes increasing numbers of diverse peoples from across the planet, it would appear that one of the indispensable tools for effective and preventative communications with these integrating communities is a forward-looking media strategy capable of producing ongoing support for federal and provincial decision-makers in future years.


References:

1. A mass rally of 500 attendees in Toronto, called on world leaders to press for information on Israel Defence Force (IDF) soldiers in : The Jewish Tribune, 25 January 2001, Toronto, Jewish.)

2. B'Nai Brith surprised at Canadian embassy in Lybia in : The Canadian Jewish Tribune, 5 July 2001, Toronto, Jewish.

3. CanWest Global Communications Corp. executive Israel Asper criticized Canada's foreign policy in: The Canadian Jewish News, 28 June 2001, 30 August 2001, North York, Jewish.

4. PM Chretien assured that he will condemn state terrorism in Sri Lanka after his re-election. (News: Uthayan, 17 November, Toronto, Tamil.)

5. Some Tamil youths have brought a social stigma on the community, in: Thamilar Senthamarai, 29 March 2001, Toronto, Tamil; Opinion: Thamilar Thahaval, July 2001, Tamil, Toronto.

6. Les médias ne cessent de parler de radicalisme islamiste et de terrorisme attribué aux intégristes, alors que les musulmans sont plutôt tolérants, in: Al-Mughtarib, 15 november 2000, Toronto, arabe.

7. Citizenship and Immigration Canada changes refugee status law in: The Korea times, 02 January 2001, Toronto, Korean.)

8. The United States and Canada have recently strengthened their border defences, in: The Korea Central Daily, 17 March 2001, Toronto, Korean.)

9. Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms thoroughly tested when two men facing deportation came before the Supreme Court, in: World Mirror,02 May 2001, English, Toronto.

10. American prosecutor blames lax Canadian immigration procedures for terrorist bases, in : Gazeta, 13/16, March, 22-27 May 2001, Toronto, Polish; Zwiazkowiec-Tydzien, 24 May, 2001, Toronto, Polish.

11. Lawyer claims deportation of Mr. Ahani would deny his rights recognised in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, in: Shahrvand, 17 May 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

12. Interpol and the Canadian Security and Intelligence Service (CSIS) arrest Egyptian national, in: Javanan 11March 2001, Willowdale, Farsi; News: Iran Javan, 05 April 2001, Toronto, Persian.

13. CIC grants special permits to individuals with criminal pasts, including those with serious crimes - terrorists , war criminals, rapists, killers, and the like: Russian Canadian INFO, 07 August 2001, Toronto, Russian.

14. U.S. has requested Canada to give more powers to CSIS, the Canadian security organization. Tamils and Muslims perturbed by British Act in: Thamilar Senthamarai, 22 February 2001, Toronto, Tamil.

15. The Canadian legal system has many loopholes through which sometimes even known murderers and those openly engaged in unlawful businesses can escape : Opinion: Indo-Canadian Times, 14 March 2001, Surrey, Punjabi.

16. The federal government proposes new law regarding charity organizations, in : Gazeta, 16 March 2001, Toronto, Polish.

17. New Bill to empower security organisations to check receipts and investigate whether the money is being used to promote terrorist activities in: Thamilar Sentamarai, 15 March 2001, Toronto, Tamil; World Mirror, 14 March 2001.

18. Salem Qoreshi, Political Science Professor of the University Alberta is suspicious of new Bill, in : Iran Javan, 22 March 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

19. Couper les vivres aux organisations qui financent le terrorisme , à condition de pouvoir démontrer leur culpabilité, in: Al-Moustakbal, 28 mars 2001, Montréal, arabe.

20. Dr. Lorne Foster: "the question is not who is terrorist and who is a freedom fighter. It is not what others stand for but, rather, what we stand for," in: Share, 12 April 2001, Toronto, Afro-Carribean.)

21. "Transnational Islamic extremism" is a leading threat to Canada's national security says CSIS in : The Jewish Post and News, 29, August 2001, Winnipeg, Jewish; The Canadian Jewish News, 30 August 2001, North York, Jewish.

22. Opinion : Al-Mughtarib, 15 November 2000, Toronto, Arabic.

23. News: Pakistan Star, 2 October 2001, Toronto, Urdu.

24. News: Urdu Times, 05 October 2001, Toronto, Urdu.

25. News: Shahrvand, 5 October 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

26. News: India Abroad, 14 December 2001, Etobicoke, English.

27. News: Gazeta, 24, 25 October, 2001, Toronto, Polish, Iran Javan, 25 October 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

28. News: Iran Javan, 20 September 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

29. News: The Spectrum, 15 September 2001, Ottawa, Afro-Canadian.

30. News: Gazeta, 17 September 2001,Toronto, Polish

31. News: Korean Central Daily, 20 September 2001, Toronto, Korean.

32. Opinion: Indo-Canadian Voice, 15 September 2001, Surrey, Indo-Canadian.

33. News on Toronto Raptors Hakeem Olajuwon: Share, 4 October 2001, Toronto, Afro-Canadian.

34. Opinion on Surena Thobani's Ottawa speech on U.S. bloody foreign policy: The Indo-Canadian Voice, 13 October 2001, Surrey, Indo-Canadian

35. Opinion: Al-Moustakbal 24 October 2001, Montreal, Arabic; Arab Star 23 October 2001, Toronto, Arabic; News, The Canadian Jewish News, 1 November 2001, North York, Jewish.

36. More than 800 sign Canadian-Chinese radio station in Vancouver set up a book of condolences in Aberdeen Centre of Richmond, in: Ming Pao Daily, 15 September 2001, Vancouver, Chinese; News: Sing Tao Daily, 16 September 2001, Vancouver, Chinese; News: Pakeeza, 18 September 2001, Toronto, Urdu; Opinion : Al-Moustakbal, 19 Septembre 2001, Montreal, Arabic

37. Canadian Jews, Chinese and Muslims continue to work together in Montreal and Vancouver: The Canadian Jewish News, 4 October 2001, North York, Jewish; News: India Abroad, 02 November 2001, Etobicoke, English; News: Share, 25 October 2001, Toronto, African-Canadian.

38. News: El Popular, 22 September 2001, Toronto, Spanish.

39. The Filipino Centre, Toronto (FCT) and the Philippine Consulate have scheduled a multi-faith memorial service for victims of terrorism at the World Trade Centre: The Philippine Reporter, 16-31 October 2001, Toronto, English.

40. Professors Carl Armheim, Ron Brenson, Janice Stein, Imam Mohamad Al-Radwi in round-table: Al-Mughtarib, 03 octobre 2001, Toronto, arabe; Nouvelles: Arab Star, 9 octobre 2001, Toronto, arabe.

41. Mosques across Canada have opened their doors to non-Muslims; 600,000 Canadian Muslims support condemnation of terrorism, in: El Popular, 22 September 2001, Toronto, Spanish; News: Corriere Canadese, 27 September 2001, Toronto, Italian; Opinion: Montreal Bulletin, 22 September 2001, Toronto, Japanese; News: Share, 4 October 2001, Toronto, African-Canadian.

42. The B.C. Muslim Association closes 500-student Richmond school; police informs World Sikh Organization president Ram Raghbir Singh Chahal that "turban-wearing religious groups are facing violence and death threats, in: The Indo-Canadian Voice, 15 September 2001, Surrey, English.

43. Letter calls upon all communities to remain calm, fight against any harmful behaviour arising from racial hatred, in: The World Journal, 30 September 2001, Toronto, Chinese; News:Ming Pao, 30 September 2001, Toronto, Chinese; News:Sing Tao, 30 September 2001, Toronto, Chinese.

44. News: The Indo-Canadian Voice, 15 September 2001, Surrey, English.

45. The backlash visible in Canada: Arab students harassed and attacked in schools, in: El Popular, 15 September 2001, Toronto, Spanish.

46. Toronto Police Chief Julian Fantino said racial crimes have increased: in Korea Central Daily, 20 September 2001, Toronto, Korean.)

47. Hedy Fry emphasizes Canada is at war with terrorism , not its own varied citizens. She warned against misplaced emotions dominating how we relate to each other in Canada in: Share, 27 September 2001, Toronto, African-Canadian.

48. British Columbia Senator Gerry Saint Germain (PC) announced immigration policies weak, in: News: Korea Times Daily, 17 September 2001, Toronto, Korean; News: Korea Central Daily, 17 September 2001, Toronto, Korean; News and Opinion: Gazeta, 13, 14-16 September, 2001, Toronto, Polish; News: Iran Star, 21 September 2001, Toronto, Farsi/Iranian.

49. Caplan insists Canadian immigration policy is already one of the toughest in the world, in: The Korea Times Daily, 19 September 2001, Toronto, Korean; News: Korea Central Daily, 19 September 2001, Toronto, Korean; News: Gazeta, 24/25/27 September, 2001, Toronto, Polish; News: Thoi Bao, 14 December 2001, Toronto, Vietnamese.

50. Canadian commentator urges U.S. president to use Armenian guerrilla experience in Afghanistan in defence of civilization in: Horizon, 24 September 2001, Montreal, Armenian)

51. Opinion: Ellino-Kanadhika Khronika, 8 November 2001, Toronto, Greek; The Canadian Jewish News, 15 November 2001, North York, Jewish.

52. Opinion: Share, 6 December 2001, Toronto, Afro-Canadian.

53. News: The Spectrum, 7 December 2001, Ottawa, Afro-Canadian; Corriere Italiano, 26 December 2001, Montreal, Italian; Opinion: Shahrvand, 18 January 2002, Toronto, Farsi.

54. Opinion: The Indo-Canadian Voice, 19 January 2002, Surrey, Indo-Canadian.

55. Opinion: Sharhvand, 11 January 2002, Toronto, Farsi.

56. Opinion, Shahrvand, 11 January 2002, Toronto, Farsi; Horizon, 14 January 2002, Montreal, Armenian.

57. News: Arab Star 20 November 2001, Toronto, Arabic.

58. News: El-Ressala, 15 November 2001, Montreal, Arabic.

59. News: Gazeta, 7 November 2001, Toronto, Polish.

60. Ellino-Kanadhika Khronika, 8 November 2001, Toronto, Greek, The Canadian Jewish News, 15 November 2001, North York, Jewish.

61. News: Arab Star, 18 December 2001, Toronto, Arabic, El-Ressala, 20 December 2001, Montreal, Arabic.

62. Opinion: Corriere Italiano, 26 December 2001, Montreal, Italian.

63. News: The Jewish Post and News, 12 December 2001, Winnipeg, Jewish.

64. News: Eelamurasu, 31 October 2001, Toronto, Tamil.

65. Opinion, Eelamurasu, 21 November 2001, Toronto, Tamil; News, The South Asian Voice, 4 December 2001, Toronto, Urdu.

66. Opinion: Al-Moustakbal, 16 January 2002, Montreal, Arabic;

67. Opinion: The Spectrum, 10 January 2002, Ottawa, Afro-Canadian.

68. United Chinese Community Enrichment Service Society said it would support such a decision, in: World Journal, 16 September 2001, Vancouver, Chinese.

69. News: Korea Times Daily, 17 September 2001, Toronto, Korean; News: Korea Central Daily, 17 September 2001, Toronto, Korean.)

70. Chinese Canadian National Council (Vancouver) says bid to tighten immigration policies is wrong finger-pointing, in: Ming Pao Daily, 18 September 2001, Vancouver, Chinese.

71. Canada is fast becoming an intolerant nation: Share, 11 October 2001, Toronto, African- Canadian.

72. Lengthening refugee detentions is scapegoating: Opinion: Sing Tao Daily, 13 October 2001, Vancouver, Chinese; See also: Urdu Times, 12 October 2001, Toronto, Urdu; Gazeta, 07 November 2001, Zwiazkowiec 08 November/2001, Toronto, Polish; Share, 15 November 2001, Toronto, African-Canadian; Korea Central Daily, 17 December 2001, Toronto, Korean.

73. Policies regressive, mean: foreign students prohibited from studying biology and chemistry. in: Share, 11 October 2001, Toronto, African-Canadian; Opinion: Thamilar Senthamarai, 04 October 2001, Toronto, Tamil.

74. News: Gazeta, 13-16 September 2001.

75. News: The Iran Star, 21 September 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

76. News: The Iran Star, 21 September 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

77. Opinion: Share, 11 October 2001, Toronto, Afro-Canadian.

78. News: The Korea Times Daily, 12 November 2001, Toronto, Korean; Opinion: Indo-Canadian Times. 14 November 2001, Surrey, Punjabi.

79. Opinion: The Filipino Journal 31 November 2001, Winnipeg, Tagalog.

80. Opinion: Gazeta 16 December 2001, Toronto, Polish.

81. Opinion: Iran Javan, 10 January 2002, Toronto, Farsi.

82. Opinion: Voice, 14 January 2002, Toronto, Portuguese.

83. Share, 27 September 2001, Toronto, African- Canadian.

84. Opinion: Al-Moustakbal, 26 September 2001, Montreal, Arabic.

85. News: The Jewish Tribune, 13 September 2001, North York, Jewish.

86. Opinion: Eelamurasu, 19 September 2001, Toronto, Tamil.

87. News: Gazeta, 18 December 2001, Toronto, Polish.

88. News: Urdu Times, 5, 12 October 2001, Toronto, Urdu;

89. News: Sharhvand, 30 October 2001, Iran Star, 2 November 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

90. Opinion: The Canadian Jewish News, 6 December 2001, North York, Jewish.

91. Opinion: Pride, 6 December 20901, Toronto, Afro-Canadian.

92. Opinion, Gazeta, 25 September 2001, Toronto, Polish.

93. News: El-Ressala, 13 September 2001, Montreal, Arabic.

94. News: Gazeta, 9 October 2001, Toronto, Polish; Salam Toronto, 11 October 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

95. Fears new Act may affect genuine liberation movements like the World Tamil Movement in Canada, in: Eelamurasu, 19 September 2001, 31 November 2001, Toronto, Tamil.

96. There are legitimate groups fighting for their rights: people get violent when all other avenues for addressing their grievances are blocked, in: Opinion: Somali Press, November 2001, Toronto, Somali.

97. Canadian Somalis lose telephone, email contact after Al-Barakaat targeted, in: Somali Press, December 2001, Toronto, Somali.

98. News: El Popular, 31 December 2001, Toronto, Spanish.

99. News: The Spectrum, 15 October 2001,Afro-Canadian Ottawa; Share, 18 October 2001, Toronto, Afro-Canadian.

100. News: Al-Moustakbal, 28 November 2001, Montreal, Arabic.

101. News: The Canadian Jewish News, 13 December 2001, North York, Jewish.

102. News, Pakeeza, 18 September 2001, Toronto, Urdu.

103. Opinion: Al-Moustakbal, 19 September 2001, Montreal, Arabic; Opinion, Nikka Times, 21 September 2001, Toronto, Japanese.

104. Opinion, India Abroad, 28 September 2001, Etobicoke, Indo-Canadian; Opinion: The Jewish Post and News, Winnipeg, Jewish.

105. News: Gazeta, 15 October 2001, Toronto, Polish.

106. Opinion: Russian-Canadian Info, 6 November 2001, Toronto, Russian.

107. News: Arab Star, 18 December 2001, Toronto, Arabic.

108. Ellino-Kanadhikon Vima, 4 January 2002, Montreal, Greek.

109. News, Patrides, December 2001, Toronto, Greek.

110. Opinion: The Canadian Jewish News, 20 September 2001, North York, Jewish.

111. News: Al-Mughtarib, 5 September 2001, Toronto, Arabic.

112. News: The South Asian Voice, 2 October 2001, Toronto, Urdu.

113. Opinion: The Jewish Post and News, 10 October 2001, Winnipeg, Jewish.

114. Opinion: Share, 20 December 2001, Toronto, Afro-Canadian

115. Opinion, Nikka Times, 21 September 2001, Toronto, Japanese; Sharhvand, 21 September 2001, Toronto, Farsi; Al-Moustakbal, 19 September 2001, Montreal Arabic.

116. Opinion: Al-Moustakbal, 19 September 2001, Montreal, Arabic; Montreal Bulletin, 22 September 2001, Toronto, Japanese.

117. Opinion: Thoi Bao, 28 September 2001, Toronto, Vietnamese.

118. News: The Vancouver Shimpo, 27 September 2001, Vancouver, Japanese; Nikka Times, 15 November 2001, Toronto, Japanese.

119. Opinion, The New Canadian, 27 September 2001, Toronto, Japanese.

120. Opinion: The New Canadian, 27 September 2001, Toronto, Japanese; Nikka Times, 5 October 2001, Toronto, Japanese.

121. Opinion: Ellino-Kanadhika Khronika, 27 September 2001, Toronto, Greek.

122. Opinion: Shahrvand, 21 September 2001, Toronto, Farsi.

123. News: Corriere Canadese, 12 November 2001, Toronto, Italian.

124. Opinion: The Montreal Bulletin, November 2001, Montreal, Japanese

125. Opinion: Al-Mughtarib, 21 November 2001, Toronto, Arabic; Opinion, Eelamurasu, 21 November 2001, Toronto, Tamil.

126. Opinion: Horizon, 24 September 2001, Montreal, Armenian.

127. News: El Popular, 3 December 2001, Toronto, Spanish.

128. News: The Pakistan Star, 2 October 2001, Toronto, Urdu; News: Pakeeza, 2 October 2001, Toronto, Urdu.

129. News: The Canadian Jewish News, 8 November 2001, North York, Jewish.

130. Opinion: The Filipino Journal, 31 November 2001, Winnipeg, Filipino/Tagalog.

131. News: The Canadian Jewish News, 18 October 2001, North York, Jewish; .

132. Opinion: The Canadian Jewish News, 28 September 2001, North York, Jewish.

133. Opinion: The Canadian Jewish News, 1 November 2001, North York, Jewish.

close this window to return to Pluri Vox Commentaries page